Histoire de la monnaie


En , Londres déclare que les billets de la Banque d'Angleterre sont la seule monnaie légale et doivent être garantis en or. Espaces de noms Article Discussion. Il y a bien là création monétaire puisque le volume de moyens de paiement disponibles s'est accru [ 28 ]. Archived from the original on 30 August

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It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety.

The earliest authenticated human remains in South Asia date to about 30, years ago. During the period — BCE, in terms of culture, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic to the Iron Age.

In the late Vedic period , around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas.

Jainism came into prominence during the life of its exemplar, Mahavira. Politically, by the 3rd century BCE, the kingdom of Magadha had annexed or reduced other states to emerge as the Mauryan Empire. The Indian early medieval age, CE to CE, is defined by regional kingdoms and cultural diversity. In the 6th and 7th centuries, the first devotional hymns were created in the Tamil language.

After the 10th century, Muslim Central Asian nomadic clans, using swift-horse cavalry and raising vast armies united by ethnicity and religion, repeatedly overran South Asia's north-western plains, leading eventually to the establishment of the Islamic Delhi Sultanate in Although at first disruptive for the Indian elites, the sultanate largely left its vast non-Muslim subject population to its own laws and customs.

In the early 16th century, northern India, being then under mainly Muslim rulers, [69] fell again to the superior mobility and firepower of a new generation of Central Asian warriors.

By the early 18th century, with the lines between commercial and political dominance being increasingly blurred, a number of European trading companies, including the English East India Company , had established coastal outposts.

Historians consider India's modern age to have begun sometime between and The appointment in of Lord Dalhousie as Governor General of the East India Company set the stage for changes essential to a modern state.

These included the consolidation and demarcation of sovereignty, the surveillance of the population, and the education of citizens. Technological changes—among them, railways, canals, and the telegraph—were introduced not long after their introduction in Europe. Fed by diverse resentments and perceptions, including invasive British-style social reforms, harsh land taxes, and summary treatment of some rich landowners and princes, the rebellion rocked many regions of northern and central India and shook the foundations of Company rule.

Proclaiming a unitary state and a gradual but limited British-style parliamentary system, the new rulers also protected princes and landed gentry as a feudal safeguard against future unrest. The rush of technology and the commercialisation of agriculture in the second half of the 19th century was marked by economic setbacks—many small farmers became dependent on the whims of far-away markets.

After World War I, in which approximately one million Indians served , [] a new period began. It was marked by British reforms but also repressive legislations , by more strident Indian calls for self-rule, and by the beginnings of a nonviolent movement of non-co-operation, of which Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi would become the leader and enduring symbol.

Indian participation in World War II , the Congress's final push for non-co-operation, and an upsurge of Muslim nationalism. All were capped by the advent of independence in , but tempered by the partition of India into two states: Vital to India's self-image as an independent nation was its constitution, completed in , which put in place a secular and democratic republic.

Indian movies, music, and spiritual teachings play an increasing role in global culture. India comprises the bulk of the Indian subcontinent, lying atop the Indian tectonic plate , and part of the Indo-Australian Plate.

The original Indian plate survives as peninsular India , the oldest and geologically most stable part of India. It extends as far north as the Satpura and Vindhya ranges in central India. These parallel chains run from the Arabian Sea coast in Gujarat in the west to the coal-rich Chota Nagpur Plateau in Jharkhand in the east.

Major Himalayan-origin rivers that substantially flow through India include the Ganges and the Brahmaputra , both of which drain into the Bay of Bengal. The Indian climate is strongly influenced by the Himalayas and the Thar Desert, both of which drive the economically and culturally pivotal summer and winter monsoons.

India lies within the Indomalaya ecozone and contains three biodiversity hotspots. Between these extremes lie the moist deciduous sal forest of eastern India; the dry deciduous teak forest of central and southern India; and the babul -dominated thorn forest of the central Deccan and western Gangetic plain. The luxuriant pipal fig tree, shown on the seals of Mohenjo-daro , shaded Gautama Buddha as he sought enlightenment.

Many Indian species descend from taxa originating in Gondwana, from which the Indian plate separated more than million years before present. Epochal volcanism and climatic changes 20 million years ago forced a mass extinction. India contains IUCN -designated threatened animal species , or 2.

The pervasive and ecologically devastating human encroachment of recent decades has critically endangered Indian wildlife. In response, the system of national parks and protected areas , first established in , was substantially expanded. In , India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act [] and Project Tiger to safeguard crucial wilderness; the Forest Conservation Act was enacted in and amendments added in India is the world's most populous democracy.

Since then, however, it has increasingly shared the political stage with the BJP, [] as well as with powerful regional parties which have often forced the creation of multi-party coalition governments at the centre.

In the Republic of India's first three general elections, in , , and , the Jawaharlal Nehru -led Congress won easy victories. On Nehru's death in , Lal Bahadur Shastri briefly became prime minister; he was succeeded, after his own unexpected death in , by Indira Gandhi , who went on to lead the Congress to election victories in and Following public discontent with the state of emergency she declared in , the Congress was voted out of power in ; the then-new Janata Party , which had opposed the emergency, was voted in.

Its government lasted just over two years. Voted back into power in , the Congress saw a change in leadership in , when Indira Gandhi was assassinated; she was succeeded by her son Rajiv Gandhi , who won an easy victory in the general elections later that year. The Congress was voted out again in when a National Front coalition, led by the newly formed Janata Dal in alliance with the Left Front , won the elections; that government too proved relatively short-lived, lasting just under two years.

The Congress, as the largest single party, was able to form a minority government led by P. A two-year period of political turmoil followed the general election of Several short-lived alliances shared power at the centre. The BJP formed a government briefly in ; it was followed by two comparatively long-lasting United Front coalitions, which depended on external support.

The UPA returned to power in the general election with increased numbers, and it no longer required external support from India's communist parties. India is a federation with a parliamentary system governed under the Constitution of India , which serves as the country's supreme legal document. It is a constitutional republic and representative democracy , in which " majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law ".

Federalism in India defines the power distribution between the union, or central, government and the states. The government abides by constitutional checks and balances.

The Constitution of India , which came into effect on 26 January , [] states in its preamble that India is a sovereign , socialist , secular , democratic republic.

The Government of India comprises three branches: India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories. The remaining five union territories are directly ruled by the centre through appointed administrators. In , under the States Reorganisation Act , states were reorganised on a linguistic basis. Each state or union territory is further divided into administrative districts. The districts are further divided into tehsils and ultimately into villages.

Since its independence in , India has maintained cordial relations with most nations. In the s, it strongly supported decolonisation in Africa and Asia and played a lead role in the Non-Aligned Movement.

India has tense relations with neighbouring Pakistan; the two nations have gone to war four times: Three of these wars were fought over the disputed territory of Kashmir , while the fourth, the war, followed from India's support for the independence of Bangladesh. Aside from ongoing special relationship with Russia , India has wide-ranging defence relations with Israel and France. The nation has provided , military and police personnel to serve in 35 UN peacekeeping operations across four continents.

China's nuclear test of , as well as its repeated threats to intervene in support of Pakistan in the war, convinced India to develop nuclear weapons. Despite criticism and military sanctions, India has signed neither the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty nor the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty , considering both to be flawed and discriminatory. Since the end of the Cold War , India has increased its economic, strategic, and military co-operation with the United States and the European Union.

Although India possessed nuclear weapons at the time and was not party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, it received waivers from the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Nuclear Suppliers Group , ending earlier restrictions on India's nuclear technology and commerce.

As a consequence, India became the sixth de facto nuclear weapons state. The President of India is the supreme commander of the nation's armed forces; with 1. Widespread state intervention and regulation largely walled the economy off from the outside world. An acute balance of payments crisis in forced the nation to liberalise its economy ; [] since then it has slowly moved towards a free-market system [] [] by emphasising both foreign trade and direct investment inflows.

Averaging an economic growth rate of 7. However, it is higher than Pakistan, Nepal, Afghanistan, Bangladesh and others. According to the Worldwide Cost of Living Report released by the Economist Intelligence Unit EIU which was created by comparing more than individual prices across products and services, four of the cheapest cities were in India: Bangalore 3rd , Mumbai 5th , Chennai 5th and New Delhi 8th.

India's telecommunication industry , the world's fastest-growing, added million subscribers during the period —11, [] and after the third quarter of , India surpassed the US to become the second largest smartphone market in the world after China. The pharmaceutical industry in India is among the significant emerging markets for the global pharmaceutical industry.

Despite economic growth during recent decades, India continues to face socio-economic challenges. According to a Walk Free Foundation report in , there were an estimated Since , economic inequality between India's states has consistently grown: According to Corruption Perceptions Index , India ranked 76th out of countries in , from 85th in With 1,,, residents reported in the provisional census report , [] India is the world's second-most populous country.

Its population grew by Life expectancy in India is at 68 years, with life expectancy for women being The number of Indians living in urban areas grew by The slowing down of the overall growth rate of population was due to the sharp decline in the growth rate in rural areas since The improvement in literacy rate in rural area is two times that in urban areas. India is home to two major language families: Other languages spoken in India come from the Austroasiatic and Sino-Tibetan language families.

India has no national language. Each state and union territory has one or more official languages, and the constitution recognises in particular 22 "scheduled languages". The census reported that the religion in India with the largest number of followers was Hinduism Indian cultural history spans more than 4, years. Much of Indian architecture , including the Taj Mahal , other works of Mughal architecture , and South Indian architecture , blends ancient local traditions with imported styles.

Vastu shastra , literally "science of construction" or "architecture" and ascribed to Mamuni Mayan , [] explores how the laws of nature affect human dwellings; [] it employs precise geometry and directional alignments to reflect perceived cosmic constructs.

This period was characterised by a varied and wide spectrum of thought and expression; as a consequence, medieval Indian literary works differed significantly from classical traditions. In the 20th century, Indian literature was influenced by the works of Bengali poet and novelist Rabindranath Tagore , [] who was a recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature. Indian music ranges over various traditions and regional styles.

Classical music encompasses two genres and their various folk offshoots: Indian dance also features diverse folk and classical forms. Among the better-known folk dances are the bhangra of Punjab, the bihu of Assam, the chhau of Odisha, West Bengal and Jharkhand, garba and dandiya of Gujarat, ghoomar of Rajasthan, and the lavani of Maharashtra.

Eight dance forms, many with narrative forms and mythological elements, have been accorded classical dance status by India's National Academy of Music, Dance, and Drama. The Indian film industry produces the world's most-watched cinema. Television broadcasting began in India in as a state-run medium of communication and had slow expansion for more than two decades. Indian cuisine encompasses a wide variety of regional and traditional cuisines, often depending on a particular state such as Maharashtrian cuisine.

Lentils may be used whole, dehusked—for example, dhuli moong or dhuli urad — or split. Split lentils, or dal , are used extensively. Traditional Indian society is sometimes defined by social hierarchy. The Indian caste system embodies much of the social stratification and many of the social restrictions found in the Indian subcontinent.

At the workplace in urban India and in international or leading Indian companies, the caste related identification has pretty much lost its importance. Family values are important in the Indian tradition, and multi-generational patriarchal joint families have been the norm in India, though nuclear families are becoming common in urban areas. Many Indian festivals are religious in origin. Other sets of holidays, varying between nine and twelve, are officially observed in individual states.

Cotton was domesticated in India by BCE. Traditional Indian dress varies in colour and style across regions and depends on various factors, including climate and faith. Popular styles of dress include draped garments such as the sari for women and the dhoti or lungi for men.

Stitched clothes, such as the shalwar kameez for women and kurta — pyjama combinations or European-style trousers and shirts for men, are also popular. In India, several traditional indigenous sports remain fairly popular, such as kabaddi , kho kho , pehlwani and gilli-danda. Some of the earliest forms of Asian martial arts , such as kalarippayattu , musti yuddha , silambam , and marma adi , originated in India.

The improved results garnered by the Indian Davis Cup team and other Indian tennis players in the early s have made tennis increasingly popular in the country. Field hockey in India is administered by Hockey India. The Indian national hockey team won the Hockey World Cup and have, as of [update] , taken eight gold, one silver, and two bronze Olympic medals, making it the sport's most successful team in the Olympics.

India has also played a major role in popularising cricket. Thus, cricket is, by far, the most popular sport in India. India has hosted or co-hosted several international sporting events: The first Formula 1 Indian Grand Prix featured in late but has been discontinued from the F1 season calendar since India has traditionally been the dominant country at the South Asian Games.

An example of this dominance is the basketball competition where the Indian team won three out of four tournaments to date. The Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna and the Arjuna Award are the highest forms of government recognition for athletic achievement; the Dronacharya Award is awarded for excellence in coaching. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Republic of India.

For other uses, see India disambiguation. Country in South Asia. Area controlled by India shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green. Hindi English [b] [6]. State level and Eighth Schedule [7]. History of India and History of the Republic of India. Government of India and Constitution of India. Administrative divisions of India.

Political integration of India. Foreign relations of India and Indian Armed Forces. Economic History of India and Economic development in India. Textile industry in India. Music of India and Dance in India. Cinema of India and Television in India. India portal Asia portal. English is an additional official language for government work alongside Hindi. However, this is disputed , and the region bordering Afghanistan is administered by Pakistan. Archived from the original PDF on 17 March Retrieved 1 September Archived from the original on 4 February Retrieved 1 March Archived from the original on 30 August Retrieved 23 August En raison de l'immense dette contractée lors de la révolution américaine , les pièces d'argent du gouvernement américain disparaissent progressivement de la circulation et en le président Thomas Jefferson suspend la frappe de nouvelles pièces.

En , Londres déclare que les billets de la Banque d'Angleterre sont la seule monnaie légale et doivent être garantis en or. C'est le Banking Act de , qui requiert aussi de capitaliser les banques. Cette solution profitera du boom minier de l'ouest américain , qui rend beaucoup plus abondant les métaux précieux, puis de la montée en puissance des mines d'or sud-africaines.

Entre-temps, plusieurs colonies britanniques, manquant à leur tour de monnaie-argent, sont obligées de frapper leurs propres jetons-monnaie. Parmi les émetteurs privés les plus célèbres, la société Strachan and Company , qui frappe des jetons dans le Griqualand à partir de , est à l'origine de la première monnaie à succès d' Afrique du Sud.

Aux États-Unis , la loi de impose au Département du Trésor un étalon strict, mais le taux de conversion or-argent surévalue l'argent par rapport à la forte demande d'or nécessaire au commerce avec l'étranger, principalement la Grande-Bretagne. L'argent afflue et l'or fuit le pays, ce qui rend la prospection d'or nécessaire et déclenche la ruée vers l'or de Californie.

En , les États-Unis réduisent le poids d'argent des pièces et en , les pièces étrangères dont le peso perdent leur statut de monnaie légale. La crise ultime du système bancaire international éclate en , lorsque les banques américaines suspendent tout paiement en argent.

En , le gouvernement américain suspend les paiements en or et argent, ce qui met un terme aux tentatives d'institution d'un étalon-argent. Entre et , quelques tentatives de résurrection d'un étalon bimétallique ont lieu, mais la découverte de filons d'argent dans l'Ouest américain rend illusoire l'idée qu'il s'agit encore d'un métal rare. Parallèlement, le développement de l'industrie s'accompagne d'une demande accrue de crédit financier.

De grandes banques sont fondées dans plusieurs pays, comme le Japon en La nécessité d'avoir des fondements solides pour toutes les transactions monétaires conduit à l'adoption rapide de l'étalon-or durant la période suivante. L' Empire allemand , fondé après la guerre franco-prussienne , vote la Loi monétaire prussienne du 4 décembre , instaurant un étalon-or strict, puis crée par la Loi monétaire allemande du 9 juillet le Goldmark. Cette monnaie devient le Reichsmark , en utilisant à partir de l'or extrait dans les mines d' Afrique du Sud pour augmenter la masse monétaire [réf.

Les autres pays se tournent progressivement vers ce système qui met en valeur les propriétés de l'or comme unité de valeur stable, échangeable et universelle. Cette adoption va de pair avec la première mondialisation. C'est alors le premier véritable système monétaire international: L'étalon-or remplace le bimétallisme: Cette adoption est dans la plupart des cas une adoption avant tout de facto , rendue officielle ultérieurement:.

Pendant les années , le contexte de déflation et de dépression est favorable au rétablissement de l'argent comme monnaie. Mais les quelques tentatives effectuées se soldent par des échecs. En , seules les pièces d'or sont acceptées de fait dans l' Union monétaire latine rejointe par la Grèce , bien que l'argent soit théoriquement légal. La crise des années pousse également à l'adoption de monnaies non basées sur l'or.

Ainsi, les mandats postaux voient le jour en Grande-Bretagne en et deviennent une monnaie légale pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale. L'accroissement du commerce permet la spécialisation industrielle, tandis que la population des pays industrialisés augmente rapidement, ce qui augmente la demande de produits agricoles. La nécessité d'importer plus de produits agricoles, conjointe à celle des exportateurs agricoles d'importer des machines afin de s'industrialiser eux-mêmes, provoque une profonde réorganisation des systèmes fiscaux, la plupart des pays abandonnant peu à peu les droits de douane au profit de l' impôt sur le revenu ou sur la consommation.

Ces changements s'accompagnent d'une pression à la baisse des salaires de certaines catégories de travailleurs. Le rôle de l'étalon-or dans cette transformation reste sujet à débat. Aux États-Unis, un mouvement anti-étalon-or se constitue dans les années Il prend son origine dans le Sud-ouest et les Grandes Plaines.

De nombreux agriculteurs considèrent en effet que la rareté de l'or, particulièrement en dehors des grandes places bancaires de l'Est, est voulue et permet aux banquiers de provoquer des crises de crédit, ce qui enfonce les agriculteurs de l'Ouest dans l'endettement et conduit à la saisie de leur propriété au profit des banquiers. Il y compare l'étalon-or et ses effets sur les agriculteurs à la couronne d'épines portée par Jésus-Christ lors de sa crucifixion.

Après avoir été battu, Bryan se représente en et , à chaque fois sans succès national, mais en emportant les États du Sud et des Grandes plaines. Cette politique crédibilise l'attachement à l'étalon-or. D'après Lawrence Officer et Alberto Giovanni , ces effets sont visibles en comparant le taux de la Banque d'Angleterre et les flux entre livre, dollar, mark et franc. Selon eux, la clé de la crédibilité du système était la dévotion de la Banque d'Angleterre à la stabilité des changes, en ajustant chaque fois que nécessaire son taux d'intérêt: Vers , la plupart des pays industrialisés reconnaissent la nécessité d'un prêteur en dernier recours.

L'importance d'une banque centrale dans le système financier a été soulignée lors de sauvetages, comme celui de la banque Barings , effectué par la Banque d'Angleterre alors que celle-ci se trouvait en quasi-faillite. Seuls les États-Unis n'avaient toujours pas de Banque centrale. Certains observateurs ont certes attribué quelques paniques bancaires des années et à la centralisation du système productif et bancaire.

Cependant, cette centralisation permet également un taux d'industrialisation accru, ce qui entraîne une hausse du niveau de vie. La plupart des pays d' Europe sont en paix et relativement prospères, malgré une certaine agitation socialiste et communiste.

Cette situation trouve brutalement son terme lorsque la Première Guerre mondiale éclate en Le Royaume-Uni se trouve rapidement contraint d'abandonner la convertibilité des billets. À la fin de la guerre, la Grande-Bretagne se trouve de fait dans un système de monnaie fiduciaire , dans lequel les mandats postaux et les bons au trésor sont monétisés. Les besoins gigantesques en matériel militaire provoquent l'inflation.

Tous les pays choisissent d'imprimer plus de monnaie qu'ils ne possèdent de contrepartie en or, comptant sur les réparations de guerre une fois la victoire acquise, sur le modèle utilisé par la Prusse lors de la Guerre franco-prussienne.

Les États-Unis et la Grande-Bretagne mettent en place une suite de mesures destinées à contrôler la circulation d'or et à réformer le système bancaire, mais sont finalement contraints de suspendre la parité-or pour financer l'effort de guerre. Les accords de Gênes de ont pour but de restaurer l'ordre monétaire international, complètement désorganisé par la Première Guerre mondiale. Cette conférence est décidée à l'initiative de la Grande-Bretagne. Elle réunit tous les pays ayant participé au conflit sauf les États-Unis.

Le Royaume-Uni revient à l'étalon-or en , suivant l'avis des économistes conservateurs d'alors, malgré les réticences du Chancelier de l'Échiquier , Winston Churchill. Malgré l'inflation élevée survenue à la sortie de la guerre du fait de l'endettement public, Churchill revient à la parité d'avant-guerre. Le gouvernement britannique conduit une politique d'austérité monétaire entre et La valeur effective de la livre sterling en or est progressivement augmentée, ce qui provoque une déflation de l'économie.

La déflation touche toutes les parties de l' Empire britannique où la livre est utilisée comme unité de compte principale. En France, l'étalon-or est rétabli en par Raymond Poincaré à la suite d'une dévaluation des quatre cinquièmes de la valeur du franc d'avant L'Allemagne sombre dans une période d' hyperinflation exponentielle caractérisée par une fuite de l'or, qui se conclut par le lancement du rentenmark puis du reichsmark en reposant sur le potentiel industriel du pays.

La crise de rend la parité avec l'or intenable dans de nombreux pays. En , la conférence de Londres signe la mort du système monétaire international. Les délégations de France et d'Italie insistent sur un retour immédiat à un système d'étalon-or. Lors de la conférence, une proposition de stabiliser les taux de change entre la France, le Royaume-Uni et les États-Unis, basée sur des droits de tirage, est rejetée.

Le désaccord porte avant tout sur la valeur de l'or dans un nouveau système. Cordell Hull , le secrétaire d'État américain, avait reçu pour instructions d'exiger une reflation des prix avant tout retour à l'étalon-or. Un autre point de désaccord est le rôle des droits de douane dans l'effondrement de l'étalon-or: À partir des années , plusieurs pays dont les États-Unis , prennent des mesures pour interdire la détention privée d'or.

Les bijoux et collections de pièces de monnaie sont exemptées et l'interdiction ne sera jamais appliquée très sévèrement. Elle est levée en Pendant cette période, les citoyens américains sont tenus de ne détenir que des billets de la banque centrale. La Cour suprême entérine la loi en [ 6 ]. Certains mouvements conservateurs voient dans cette loi une usurpation du droit à la propriété privée [ 7 ].

Pendant les années , la plupart des pays négocient des accords commerciaux bilatéraux et, à partir de , leur politique économique est conditionnée par l'idée qu'un conflit de grande ampleur est de plus en plus probable. La priorité accordée à ces dépenses rend impossible le retour à un étalon-or, car celui-ci requiert un équilibre budgétaire. De même, aux États-Unis, le gouvernement Roosevelt y renonce après , après que sa tentative d'équilibrer le budget a provoqué une nouvelle récession.

Le MEFO permet de contourner les restrictions financières du traité de Versailles et contribue au réarmement accéléré de l'Allemagne, lequel fut entamé dès