United Kingdom

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The international spread of the English language ensured the continuing international influence of its literature and culture. In the following decades, the UK became a more multi-ethnic society than before. In the decade-long process of European integration , the UK was a founding member of the alliance called the Western European Union , established with the London and Paris Conferences in The Treaty of Lisbon was signed in , which forms the constitutional basis of the European Union since then.

From the late s, Northern Ireland suffered communal and paramilitary violence sometimes affecting other parts of the UK conventionally known as the Troubles.

It is usually considered to have ended with the Belfast "Good Friday" Agreement of Following a period of widespread economic slowdown and industrial strife in the s, the Conservative government of the s under Margaret Thatcher initiated a radical policy of monetarism , deregulation, particularly of the financial sector for example, Big Bang in and labour markets, the sale of state-owned companies privatisation , and the withdrawal of subsidies to others.

From , the economy was helped by the inflow of substantial North Sea oil revenues. Around the end of the 20th century there were major changes to the governance of the UK with the establishment of devolved administrations for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The UK is still a key global player diplomatically and militarily.

However, controversy surrounds some of Britain's overseas military deployments , particularly in Afghanistan and Iraq. The global financial crisis severely affected the UK economy.

The coalition government of introduced austerity measures intended to tackle the substantial public deficits which resulted. The article stipulates that the negotiations to leave will last at least two years. The UK remains a full member of the EU during this time.

The country occupies the major part of the British Isles [] archipelago and includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern one-sixth of the island of Ireland and some smaller surrounding islands.

The main rivers and estuaries are the Thames , Severn and the Humber. Scotland is the most mountainous country in the UK and its topography is distinguished by the Highland Boundary Fault —a geological rock fracture —which traverses Scotland from Arran in the west to Stonehaven in the east. The main population and industrial areas are in South Wales, consisting of the coastal cities of Cardiff , Swansea and Newport , and the South Wales Valleys to their north.

The highest mountains in Wales are in Snowdonia and include Snowdon Welsh: The United Kingdom has a temperate climate, with plentiful rainfall all year round. Atlantic currents, warmed by the Gulf Stream , bring mild winters; [] especially in the west where winters are wet and even more so over high ground. Summers are warmest in the south-east of England, being closest to the European mainland, and coolest in the north. Heavy snowfall can occur in winter and early spring on high ground, and occasionally settles to great depth away from the hills.

The geographical division of the United Kingdom into counties or shires began in England and Scotland in the early Middle Ages and was complete throughout Great Britain and Ireland by the early Modern Period.

Modern local government by elected councils, partly based on the ancient counties, was introduced separately: The organisation of local government in England is complex, with the distribution of functions varying according to local arrangements.

The upper-tier subdivisions of England are the nine regions , now used primarily for statistical purposes. Councillors are elected by the first-past-the-post system in single-member wards or by the multi-member plurality system in multi-member wards. For local government purposes , Scotland is divided into 32 council areas , with wide variation in both size and population. Local councils are made up of elected councillors, of whom there are 1,; [] they are paid a part-time salary.

Elections are conducted by single transferable vote in multi-member wards that elect either three or four councillors.

Each council elects a Provost , or Convenor , to chair meetings of the council and to act as a figurehead for the area. Local government in Wales consists of 22 unitary authorities. These include the cities of Cardiff, Swansea and Newport, which are unitary authorities in their own right.

Local government in Northern Ireland has since been organised into 26 district councils, each elected by single transferable vote. Their powers are limited to services such as collecting waste, controlling dogs and maintaining parks and cemeteries. The United Kingdom has sovereignty over seventeen territories which do not form part of the United Kingdom itself: The fourteen British Overseas Territories are: They are the last remaining remnants of the British Empire and a UK government white paper stated that: Britain has willingly granted independence where it has been requested; and we will continue to do so where this is an option.

The Crown dependencies are possessions of the Crown , as opposed to overseas territories of the UK. By mutual agreement, the British Government manages the islands' foreign affairs and defence and the UK Parliament has the authority to legislate on their behalf. However, internationally, they are regarded as "territories for which the United Kingdom is responsible".

The British dependencies use a varied assortment of currencies. These include the British pound, US dollar, New Zealand dollar, euro or their own currencies, which may be pegged to either.

The United Kingdom is a unitary state under a constitutional monarchy. The monarch has "the right to be consulted, the right to encourage, and the right to warn". However, no Parliament can pass laws that future Parliaments cannot change. The UK has a parliamentary government based on the Westminster system that has been emulated around the world: The parliament of the United Kingdom meets in the Palace of Westminster and has two houses: All bills passed are given Royal Assent before becoming law.

The position of prime minister , [note 13] the UK's head of government , [] belongs to the person most likely to command the confidence of the House of Commons; this individual is typically the leader of the political party or coalition of parties that holds the largest number of seats in that chamber.

The prime minister chooses a cabinet and its members are formally appointed by the monarch to form Her Majesty's Government. By convention, the monarch respects the prime minister's decisions of government.

The cabinet is traditionally drawn from members of the prime minister's party or coalition and mostly from the House of Commons but always from both legislative houses, the cabinet being responsible to both. Executive power is exercised by the prime minister and cabinet, all of whom are sworn into the Privy Council of the United Kingdom , and become Ministers of the Crown.

May is also the leader of the Conservative Party. For elections to the House of Commons, the UK is divided into constituencies , [] each electing a single member of parliament MP by simple plurality.

General elections are called by the monarch when the prime minister so advises. Prior to the Fixed-term Parliaments Act , the Parliament Acts and required that a new election must be called no later than five years after the previous general election.

The Conservative Party, the Labour Party and the Liberal Democrats formerly as the Liberal Party have, in modern times, been considered the UK's three major political parties , [] representing the British traditions of conservatism , socialism and liberalism , respectively.

Most of the remaining seats were won by parties that contest elections only in one part of the UK: In accordance with party policy, no elected Sinn Féin members of parliament have ever attended the House of Commons to speak on behalf of their constituents because of the requirement to take an oath of allegiance to the monarch.

Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland each have their own government or executive , led by a First Minister or, in the case of Northern Ireland, a diarchal First Minister and deputy First Minister , and a devolved unicameral legislature. England, the largest country of the United Kingdom, has no such devolved executive or legislature and is administered and legislated for directly by the UK's government and parliament on all issues.

This situation has given rise to the so-called West Lothian question , which concerns the fact that members of parliament from Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland can vote, sometimes decisively, [] on matters that affect only England.

The Scottish Government and Parliament have wide-ranging powers over any matter that has not been specifically reserved to the UK Parliament, including education , healthcare , Scots law and local government. The Executive is led by a diarchy representing unionist and nationalist members of the Assembly.

The British and Irish governments co-operate on non-devolved matters affecting Northern Ireland through the British—Irish Intergovernmental Conference , which assumes the responsibilities of the Northern Ireland administration in the event of its non-operation. The UK does not have a codified constitution and constitutional matters are not among the powers devolved to Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland. The United Kingdom does not have a single legal system as Article 19 of the Treaty of Union provided for the continuation of Scotland's separate legal system.

English law , Northern Ireland law and Scots law. Both English law, which applies in England and Wales , and Northern Ireland law are based on common-law principles. The Supreme Court is the highest court in the land for both criminal and civil appeal cases in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and any decision it makes is binding on every other court in the same jurisdiction, often having a persuasive effect in other jurisdictions.

Scots law is a hybrid system based on both common-law and civil-law principles. The chief courts are the Court of Session , for civil cases, [] and the High Court of Justiciary , for criminal cases. Both "not guilty" and "not proven" result in an acquittal. The prison population of England and Wales has increased to 86,, giving England and Wales the highest rate of incarceration in Western Europe at per , Scotland's prisons are overcrowded but the prison population is shrinking.

It is also a member state of the European Union in the process of withdrawal. Britain's global presence and influence is further amplified through its trading relations, foreign investments, official development assistance and military engagements.

The armed forces of the United Kingdom—officially, Her Majesty's Armed Forces —consist of three professional service branches: The Commander-in-Chief is the British monarch , to whom members of the forces swear an oath of allegiance. The British armed forces played a key role in establishing the British Empire as the dominant world power in the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries. By emerging victorious from conflicts, Britain has often been able to decisively influence world events.

Since the end of the British Empire, the UK has remained a major military power. Following the end of the Cold War , defence policy has a stated assumption that "the most demanding operations" will be undertaken as part of a coalition. Setting aside the intervention in Sierra Leone in , the last occasion on which the British military fought alone was the Falklands War of According to various sources, including the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute and the International Institute for Strategic Studies , the United Kingdom has the fourth- or fifth-highest military expenditure in the world.

Total defence spending amounts to 2. The UK has a partially regulated market economy. HM Treasury , led by the Chancellor of the Exchequer , is responsible for developing and executing the government's public finance policy and economic policy.

The Bank of England is the UK's central bank and is responsible for issuing notes and coins in the nation's currency, the pound sterling. Banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland retain the right to issue their own notes, subject to retaining enough Bank of England notes in reserve to cover their issue.

The pound sterling is the world's third-largest reserve currency after the US dollar and the euro. The Industrial Revolution started in the UK with an initial concentration on the textile industry, [] followed by other heavy industries such as shipbuilding , coal mining and steelmaking. Manufacturing remains a significant part of the economy but accounted for only In , the UK produced around 1. The UK is a major centre for engine manufacturing: BAE Systems plays a critical role in some of the world's biggest defence aerospace projects.

It is also a principal subcontractor on the F35 Joint Strike Fighter—the world's largest single defence project—for which it designs and manufactures a range of components.

It also manufactures the Hawk , the world's most successful jet training aircraft. Rolls-Royce is the world's second-largest aero-engine manufacturer. Its engines power more than 30 types of commercial aircraft and it has more than 30, engines in service in the civil and defence sectors.

It is growing at a rate of 7. The UK retains a significant, though much reduced fishing industry. It is also rich in a number of natural resources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, tin, limestone, iron ore, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica and an abundance of arable land.

In the final quarter of , the UK economy officially entered recession for the first time since Since the s, UK economic inequality , like Canada, Australia and the United States, has grown faster than in other developed countries. The combination of the UK's relatively lax regulatory regime and London's financial institutions providing sophisticated methods to launder proceeds from criminal activity around the world, including those from drug trade, makes the City of London a global hub for illicit finance and the UK a safe haven for the world's major-league tax dodgers , according to research papers and reports published in the mids.

England and Scotland were leading centres of the Scientific Revolution from the 17th century. Major scientific discoveries from the 18th century include hydrogen by Henry Cavendish ; [] from the 20th century penicillin by Alexander Fleming , [] and the structure of DNA , by Francis Crick and others. Scientific research and development remains important in British universities, with many establishing science parks to facilitate production and co-operation with industry. In Great Britain, the British Rail network was privatised between and , which was followed by a rapid rise in passenger numbers following years of decline, although the factors behind this are disputed.

Network Rail owns and manages most of the fixed assets tracks, signals etc. About 20 privately owned Train Operating Companies operate passenger trains, which carried 1. In the year from October to September UK airports handled a total of In , the UK was the world's ninth-largest consumer of energy and the 15th-largest producer. In , the UK was the 13th-largest producer of natural gas in the world and the largest producer in the EU. Coal production played a key role in the UK economy in the 19th and 20th centuries.

In the mids, million tonnes of coal were produced annually, not falling below million tonnes until the early s. During the s and s the industry was scaled back considerably. In , the UK produced All but one of the reactors will be retired by Unlike Germany and Japan, the UK intends to build a new generation of nuclear plants from about The total of all renewable electricity sources provided for The UK is one of the best sites in Europe for wind energy , and wind power production is its fastest growing supply, in it generated 9.

Access to improved water supply and sanitation in the UK is universal. It is estimated that In England and Wales water and sewerage services are provided by 10 private regional water and sewerage companies and 13 mostly smaller private "water only" companies.

In Scotland water and sewerage services are provided by a single public company, Scottish Water. In Northern Ireland water and sewerage services are also provided by a single public entity, Northern Ireland Water. A census is taken simultaneously in all parts of the UK every ten years. In mid and mid net long-term international migration contributed more to population growth. In mid and mid natural change contributed the most to population growth. England's population in was 53 million.

Greater Manchester Urban Area. West Yorkshire Urban Area. Historically, indigenous British people were thought to be descended from the various ethnic groups that settled there before the 12th century: Welsh people could be the oldest ethnic group in the UK. The UK has a history of small-scale non-white immigration, with Liverpool having the oldest Black population in the country dating back to at least the s during the period of the African slave trade.

During this period it is estimated the Afro-Caribbean population of Great Britain was 10, to 15, [] which later declined due to the abolition of slavery. By this number had more than quadrupled to ,, just over 0. Since substantial immigration from Africa, the Caribbean and South Asia has been a legacy of ties forged by the British Empire.

Academics have argued that the ethnicity categories employed in British national statistics, which were first introduced in the census , involve confusion between the concepts of ethnicity and race. Because of differences in the wording of the census forms used in England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, data on the Other White group is not available for the UK as a whole, but in England and Wales this was the fastest growing group between the and censuses, increasing by 1. Ethnic diversity varies significantly across the UK.

In the UK census The UK's de facto official language is English. Four Celtic languages are spoken in the UK: Welsh , Irish , Scottish Gaelic and Cornish. All are recognised as regional or minority languages, subject to specific measures of protection and promotion under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages [2] [] and the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities.

Scots , a language descended from early northern Middle English , has limited recognition alongside its regional variant, Ulster Scots in Northern Ireland, without specific commitments to protection and promotion.

It is compulsory for pupils to study a second language up to the age of 14 in England. All pupils in Wales are taught Welsh as a second language up to age 16, or are taught in Welsh. Forms of Christianity have dominated religious life in what is now the United Kingdom for over years. In the census Islam , Hinduism , Judaism , etc. The Church of England is the established church in England. It is not subject to state control , and the British monarch is an ordinary member, required to swear an oath to "maintain and preserve the Protestant Religion and Presbyterian Church Government " upon his or her accession.

The United Kingdom has experienced successive waves of migration. London held around half of this population, and other small communities existed in Manchester, Bradford and elsewhere. The German immigrant community was the largest group until , when it became second to Russian Jews. After Russian Jews suffered bitter persecutions, and, out of some 2,, who left Russia by , around , settled permanently in Britain, overtaking the Germans to be the largest ethnic minority from outside the British Isles.

In the net increase was , Immigration is now contributing to a rising population [] with arrivals and UK-born children of migrants accounting for about half of the population increase between and Over a quarter In , approximately , foreign nationals were naturalised as British citizens, the highest number since records began in This figure fell to around , in Between and , the average number of people granted British citizenship per year was , The British Government has introduced a points-based immigration system for immigration from outside the European Economic Area to replace former schemes, including the Scottish Government's Fresh Talent Initiative.

Emigration was an important feature of British society in the 19th century. Between and around Education in the United Kingdom is a devolved matter, with each country having a separate education system. Considering the four systems together, about 38 percent of the United Kingdom population has a university or college degree , which is the highest percentage in Europe, and among the highest percentages in the world.

Whilst education in England is the responsibility of the Secretary of State for Education , the day-to-day administration and funding of state schools is the responsibility of local authorities. Two of the top ten performing schools in terms of GCSE results in were state-run grammar schools.

Since the establishment of Bedford College London , Girton College Cambridge and Somerville College Oxford in the 19th century , women also can obtain a university degree. Education in Scotland is the responsibility of the Cabinet Secretary for Education and Lifelong Learning , with day-to-day administration and funding of state schools the responsibility of Local Authorities. Two non-departmental public bodies have key roles in Scottish education. The Scottish Qualifications Authority is responsible for the development, accreditation, assessment and certification of qualifications other than degrees which are delivered at secondary schools, post-secondary colleges of further education and other centres.

The Welsh Government has responsibility for education in Wales. A significant number of Welsh students are taught either wholly or largely in the Welsh language ; lessons in Welsh are compulsory for all until the age of Education in Northern Ireland is the responsibility of the Minister of Education , although responsibility at a local level is administered by the Education Authority which is further sub-divided into five geographical areas.

Healthcare in the United Kingdom is a devolved matter and each country has its own system of private and publicly funded health care , together with alternative , holistic and complementary treatments. Public healthcare is provided to all UK permanent residents and is mostly free at the point of need, being paid for from general taxation.

The World Health Organization , in , ranked the provision of healthcare in the United Kingdom as fifteenth best in Europe and eighteenth in the world. However, political and operational responsibility for healthcare lies with four national executives ; healthcare in England is the responsibility of the UK Government; healthcare in Northern Ireland is the responsibility of the Northern Ireland Executive ; healthcare in Scotland is the responsibility of the Scottish Government ; and healthcare in Wales is the responsibility of the Welsh Government.

Each National Health Service has different policies and priorities, resulting in contrasts. The culture of the United Kingdom has been influenced by many factors including: The substantial cultural influence of the United Kingdom has led it to be described as a "cultural superpower".

Most British literature is in the English language. In , some , books were published in the United Kingdom and in it was the largest publisher of books in the world. The English playwright and poet William Shakespeare is widely regarded as the greatest dramatist of all time, [] [] [] and his contemporaries Christopher Marlowe and Ben Jonson have also been held in continuous high esteem.

Wells ; the writers of children's classics Rudyard Kipling , A. Somerset Maugham and Graham Greene ; [ citation needed ] the crime writer Agatha Christie the best-selling novelist of all time ; [] Ian Fleming the creator of James Bond ; the poets T. Rowling ; the graphic novelists Alan Moore and Neil Gaiman. Scotland's contributions include the detective writer Arthur Conan Doyle the creator of Sherlock Holmes , romantic literature by Sir Walter Scott , the children's writer J.

Gunn contributed to the Scottish Renaissance. A more grim outlook is found in Ian Rankin 's stories and the psychological horror-comedy of Iain Banks.

He is widely regarded as one of the greatest European poets of his age. Daniel Owen is credited as the first Welsh-language novelist, publishing Rhys Lewis in The best-known of the Anglo-Welsh poets are both Thomases. Dylan Thomas became famous on both sides of the Atlantic in the midth century.

He is remembered for his poetry—his " Do not go gentle into that good night ; Rage, rage against the dying of the light" is one of the most quoted couplets of English language verse—and for his "play for voices", Under Milk Wood.

The influential Church in Wales "poet-priest" and Welsh nationalist R. Thomas was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in Authors of other nationalities, particularly from Commonwealth countries, the Republic of Ireland and the United States, have lived and worked in the UK.

Various styles of music are popular in the UK from the indigenous folk music of England , Wales , Scotland and Northern Ireland to heavy metal.

Sir Harrison Birtwistle is one of the foremost living composers. George Frideric Handel became a naturalised British citizen and wrote the British coronation anthem, while some of his best works, such as Messiah , were written in the English language.

His works have dominated London's West End since the late 20th century and have also been a commercial success worldwide. The Beatles have international sales of over one billion units and are the biggest-selling and most influential band in the history of popular music.

A number of UK cities are known for their music. Acts from Liverpool have had 54 UK chart number one hit singles, more per capita than any other city worldwide. As of , pop remains the most popular music genre in the UK with The history of British visual art forms part of western art history.

Major British artists include: During the late s and s the Saatchi Gallery in London helped to bring to public attention a group of multi-genre artists who would become known as the " Young British Artists ": The Royal Academy in London is a key organisation for the promotion of the visual arts in the United Kingdom. Major schools of art in the UK include: The Courtauld Institute of Art is a leading centre for the teaching of the history of art. The United Kingdom has had a considerable influence on the history of the cinema.

The British directors Alfred Hitchcock , whose film Vertigo is considered by some critics as the best film of all time , [] and David Lean are among the most critically acclaimed of all-time. Despite a history of important and successful productions, the industry has often been characterised by a debate about its identity and the level of American and European influence. British cuisine developed from various influences reflective of its land, settlements, arrivals of new settlers and immigrants, trade and colonialism.

Celtic agriculture and animal breeding produced a wide variety of foodstuffs for indigenous Celts and Britons. Anglo-Saxon England developed meat and savoury herb stewing techniques before the practice became common in Europe. The Norman conquest introduced exotic spices into England in the Middle Ages. British cuisine has absorbed the cultural influence of those who have settled in Britain , producing many hybrid dishes, such as the Anglo-Indian chicken tikka masala.

The BBC , founded in , is the UK's publicly funded radio, television and Internet broadcasting corporation, and is the oldest and largest broadcaster in the world. Edinburgh and Glasgow, and Cardiff, are important centres of newspaper and broadcasting production in Scotland and Wales respectively.

In , it was estimated that individuals viewed a mean of 3. In that year the main BBC public service broadcasting channels accounted for an estimated The United Kingdom is famous for the tradition of 'British Empiricism', a branch of the philosophy of knowledge that states that only knowledge verified by experience is valid, and 'Scottish Philosophy', sometimes referred to as the ' Scottish School of Common Sense '.

Two Britons are also notable for a theory of moral philosophy utilitarianism , first used by Jeremy Bentham and later by John Stuart Mill in his short work Utilitarianism.

Major sports, including association football, tennis , rugby union , rugby league , golf , boxing , netball , rowing and cricket , originated or were substantially developed in the UK and the states that preceded it. With the rules and codes of many modern sports invented and codified in late 19th century Victorian Britain , in , the President of the IOC, Jacques Rogge , stated; "This great, sports-loving country is widely recognised as the birthplace of modern sport.

It was here that the concepts of sportsmanship and fair play were first codified into clear rules and regulations. It was here that sport was included as an educational tool in the school curriculum". In most international competitions, separate teams represent England, Scotland and Wales. Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland usually field a single team representing all of Ireland, with notable exceptions being association football and the Commonwealth Games.

There are some sports in which a single team represents the whole of United Kingdom, including the Olympics, where the UK is represented by the Great Britain team. The , and Summer Olympics were held in London, making it the first city to host the games three times.

Britain has participated in every modern Olympic Games to date and is third in the medal count. A poll found that football is the most popular sport in the United Kingdom.

The English top division, the Premier League , is the most watched football league in the world. In , rugby union was ranked the second most popular sport in the UK. Sport governing bodies in England , Scotland , Wales and Ireland organise and regulate the game separately. Cricket was invented in England, and its laws were established by Marylebone Cricket Club in Team members are drawn from the main county sides, and include both English and Welsh players.

Cricket is distinct from football and rugby where Wales and England field separate national teams, although Wales had fielded its own team in the past. Irish and Scottish players have played for England because neither Scotland nor Ireland have Test status and have only recently started to play in One Day Internationals and Ireland is yet to play their first test match.

There is a professional league championship in which clubs representing 17 English counties and 1 Welsh county compete. The modern game of tennis originated in Birmingham, England, in the s, before spreading around the world.

The UK has proved successful in the international sporting arena in rowing. The UK is closely associated with motorsport. Many teams and drivers in Formula One F1 are based in the UK, and the country has won more drivers' and constructors' titles than any other. The premier national auto racing event is the British Touring Car Championship. Golf is the sixth most popular sport, by participation, in the UK.

Rugby league originated in Huddersfield, West Yorkshire in and is generally played in Northern England. Super League is the highest level of professional rugby league in the UK and Europe. The 'Queensberry rules' , the code of general rules in boxing , was named after John Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry in , and formed the basis of modern boxing. It was created in by the superimposition of the Flag of England on the Flag of Scotland and updated in with the addition of Saint Patrick's Flag.

Wales is not represented in the Union Flag, as Wales had been conquered and annexed to England prior to the formation of the United Kingdom.

The possibility of redesigning the Union Flag to include representation of Wales has not been completely ruled out. Britannia is a national personification of the United Kingdom, originating from Roman Britain.

She holds Poseidon 's three-pronged trident and a shield, bearing the Union Flag. Sometimes she is depicted as riding on the back of a lion. A second, less used, personification of the nation is the character John Bull. The bulldog is sometimes used as a symbol of the United Kingdom and has been associated with Winston Churchill's defiance of Nazi Germany.

United Kingdom — Wikipedia book. Great Britain is made up of England, Scotland and Wales. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. It is not to be confused with Great Britain , its largest island whose name is also loosely applied to the whole country. For other uses of "UK", see UK disambiguation. For other uses of "United Kingdom", see United Kingdom disambiguation. Royal coat of arms [note 1].

Show map of Europe. England Scotland Wales Northern Ireland. Britain place name and Terminology of the British Isles. History of the British Isles. History of the United Kingdom. Acts of Union Political history of the United Kingdom —present and Social history of the United Kingdom —present.

Geography of the United Kingdom. Skye is one of the major islands in the Inner Hebrides and part of the Scottish Highlands. Climate of the United Kingdom. The four countries of the United Kingdom. Administrative geography of the United Kingdom. Politics of the United Kingdom.

Queen Elizabeth II , Monarch since Theresa May , Prime Minister since Government of the United Kingdom. Law of the United Kingdom. Foreign relations of the United Kingdom. Economy of the United Kingdom. The City of London is one of the world's largest financial centres [] [] []. Science and technology in the United Kingdom. Transport in the United Kingdom. Energy in the United Kingdom. Water supply and sanitation in the United Kingdom.

Demography of the United Kingdom. Ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. Languages of the United Kingdom. Religion in the United Kingdom. Modern immigration to the United Kingdom. Foreign-born population of the United Kingdom. Education in the United Kingdom. Education in Northern Ireland. Healthcare in the United Kingdom. Culture of the United Kingdom. Music of the United Kingdom.

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In the English tradition, such laws are not necessary; proclamation and usage are sufficient to make it the national anthem. The words Queen, she, her , used at present in the reign of Elizabeth II , are replaced by King, he, him when the monarch is male.

Gibraltar and the British Indian Ocean Territory. When it took effect one year later, it established the Irish Free State as a separate dominion within the Commonwealth.

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Retrieved 25 August Retrieved 24 January That's what we built after World War II. Ideas and policies under Labour, — Avec quelques mots c'est encore mieux Ajouter un commentaire. Location , justice , banque , assurances , vacances , formalités , consommation , Posez votre question Signaler.

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